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BREWING.. Four Rare Pioneering Pamphlets on the Scientific Measurement in Brewing. RICHARDSON (John) Theoretic Hints of an Improved Practice of Brewing Malt-Liquors; Including some Strictures on the Nature and Properties of Water, Malt, and Hops, The Doctrine of Fermentation, the Agency of Air, the Effects of Heat and Cold on Fermented Liquors, &c. London: Printed for G. Robinson... 1775. First edition, [2], 74pp., without half-title, margins of front endpaper and title page browned from turn-ins, some light foxing.1785

London: Printed for G. G. J. and J. Robinson... [Bound with:] RICHARDSON (John) Statical Estimates of the Materials of Brewing; or a Treatise on the Application and use of the Saccharometer; an Instrument constructed for the Purposes of regulating to Advantage the Oeconomy of the Brewhouse; and of establishing the Means of producing Uniform Strength in Malt-Liquors... London: Printed for G. Robinson.... 1784. First edition, xx, [4], 243, [9]pp., folding engraved frontispiece showing 'Apparatus for estimating the value of malt and malt liquors', final leaf of text signed by the author, final leaf of index with small hole. [Bound with:] [BAVERSTOCK (James)] Hydrometrical Observations and Experiments in the Brewery. London: Printed for the Author... 1785. First edition, [2], xvi, 104pp., without the half-title and final four leaves of advertisements (as seems to be the case with most copies located). [Bound with:] RICHARDSON (John) Remarks on a Pamphlet Entitled Hydrometrical Observations and Experiments in the Brewery; in a Letter to Mr. More, Secretary to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. To which is subjoined an Advertisement, Pointing out the easiest method of applying the Saccharometer, in order to produce uniform strength in Malt-Liquors, Addressed to those Brewers who may be adverse to Calculations. Printed for G. G. J. and J. Robinson... 1785. First edition, [2], 91, [1]pp., without half-title, some occasional spotting. 4 Vols., bound as one, 8vo (210 x 120 mm), recently expertly bound half calf, marbled boards, spine gilt tooled, red morocco spine label lettered in gilt. John Richardson (1743–1815) was born at Folksworth, near Stilton in Cambridgeshire. Sometime resident in London and Liverpool, by his own account he travelled throughout Britain and Europe while practising as a brewer, before settling in Hull and forming a partnership at the North Brewery, Wincolmlee, about 1783. "A pioneer in bringing scientific measurement to brewing, he published two major books, Theoretic Hints on an Improved Practice of Brewing Malt-Liquors (1777) and Statical Estimates of the Materials for Brewing (1784)... His most influential work was Statical Estimates, in which he demonstrated how the hydrometer could be applied in brewing practice. Though he was not the first to use this instrument in brewing, it was he who coined the term saccharometer to describe a hydrometer calibrated in a scale of his own devising, which when used in conjunction with a thermometer allowed accurate measurement of the amount of fermentable matter in wort, in units of direct relevance to the brewer. His work alerted brewers to the economic importance of the hydrometer in providing a means of obtaining uniformity of strength of the subsequent beer, and allowed informed choice of the best yielding malts at a time when increases in the scale of production in the major London breweries were beginning to make accurate measurement imperative. By 1800 many of these breweries had adopted Richardson's instrument and he was destined to become regarded as the father of methodical brewing."—(Oxford DNB). James Baverstock (1741–1815) inherited his fathers brewery in 1781. He soon distinguished in the industry and he is generally regarded as the first person to make use of a hydrometer in the brewing process. "About 1768 he became acquainted with Benjamin Martin of Fleet Street, who was then advertising a hydrometer as an instrument 'useful in discovering the strength of beer, ale, wine and worts', but it was a further two years before Baverstock's experiments with a hydrometer achieved anything conclusive... In January 1770 Baverstock presented a manuscript to Martin outlining the findings of his tests with a hydrometer, but ironically Martin, the instrument's inventor, rejected the practical benefits Baverstock proposed. Baverstock then reported his findings to Samuel Whitbread, founder of a brewery in Chiswell Street, London, but his experiments were again discounted. Soon thereafter Baverstock was introduced to Henry Thrale, MP for Southwark and proprietor of the Anchor brewery, who was himself being encouraged by Samuel Johnson to pursue innovations in brewing. Thrale showed an unmatched enthusiasm for Baverstock's experiments with a hydrometer, declaring such 'an instrument of great use to the brewer in various parts of his business'. Gradually the hydrometer was adopted by most notable brewers, including Whitbread. His innovations, first presented in manuscript to Martin in 1770, were published in honour of the Society of Arts as Hydrometrical Observations and Experiments in the Brewery (1785), as a result of which Baverstock was engulfed by enquiries from brewers and some West Indian planters seeking further information."—(Oxford DNB). In the final pamphlet Remarks on a Pamphlet Entitled Hydrometrical Observations... Ricardson addresses the Secretary to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Mr. More, with his critical remarks "because the Society, being addressed by so respectable an author as Mr. Baverstock, might be led to conclude that some of the more interesting particulars communicated in the Hydrometrical Observations are novel discoveries in the world of science, should I not beg of you to inform them that, by some anticipating casualty or other, the same subjects are treated of in my Statical Estimates of the Materials of Brewing, published last year." Provenance: Ownership signature to front free-endpaper 'J. Baker 1785', with his small neat ink monogram and crest stamp to head of title of each work.

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